Among the most amazing and beautiful tourist spots in Khulna division – The Sundarbans is on the top. It is not only the top famous spot in Khulna Division but also have a higher rated ranking in the world. Tourists from home and abroad visit here continuously. Researchers from all over the world come and do researches on various topics about Sundarbans.
The name Sundarban means beautiful forest/woodland. Manny says The Sundarbans was named after the tree Sundaree, which grow in abundance there. Other possible explanations may be that it may have been named “Sea Forest” or “Chandra-Bandhee (Dam)” (Old Indigenous). But it is generally assumed that Sundarbans have been named from the beautiful trees.
General information of Sundarban – The amazing tourist spots in Khulna division
Sundarbans is a vast forest in the coastal region of the Bay of Bengal which is one of the natural wonders of the world. The largest uninterrupted tidal mangrove forest in the world of about 10,000 square kilometers is located in Khulna, Bagerhat and Satkhira districts of the southwestern part of the Sundarbans and twenty-four Parganas districts of the Indian state of West Bengal. About 6,017 sq km of the entire Sundarbans is located in Bangladesh. Soil and Ecology of Sundarbans mangrove forests are unique and the impact of waterlogging and salinity due to the tidal effect of this forest is obvious. Biodiversity is also unique because of this special feature. The unique combination of the beautiful creations and arrangements of wildlife and wildlife, this forest has been identified as a natural natural phenomenon. In 1903 Mr. Pine has written 334 plant species in his book written on the Sundarbans tree. 165 species of algae and 13 species of orchids are also found in the Sundarbans. Of the 50 actual mangrove plant species, only 35 species are found in the Sundarbans. The main tree species of this forest are beautiful and gewa. Apart from animals, dhrupal, garna, bine, crabs, keora etc. are also grown naturally. The Sundarbans are unique in many types of organisms. The Sunderbans is the most important residence of the Royal Bengal Tiger. About 289 species of terrestrial animals live in the Sundarbans. Besides, there are about 42 species of mammals, 35 species of reptiles, 8 species of amphibians and 219 species of aquatic animals with different species of fish. Apart from the Royal Bengal Tiger, the Sundarbans’s significant mammals include Chitra deer, Maya deer, Rhesus monkeys, forest cat, hazers, oats cats and wild pigs. Among the 35 species of reptiles, the largest member of the Sundarbans, Mohanar Crocer; Their number is 200. Among the serpents, there is a mention of rajgokhar, ajagar and katte. Among the invertebrates, some Molassa and Crustaceans are considered important fisheries. Among the species listed, there are about 24 species of shrimp, 14 species of crab, a few species of snails and mussels. Most birds residing in the Sundarbans are either local or residential. About 50 species of migratory migratory birds and most of them are poultry. The diversity of the pest of the Sundarbans is also unlimited. According to the latest survey, there are 106 tigers and 1,00,000 to 1,50,000 Chitra deer and 20,000 monkeys in the Sundarbans. According to the study, the two species of amphibians, 14 species of reptiles, 25 species of birds, and 5 species of breastmilk are currently under threat. Various steps have been taken by the Department of Forests and the government to protect the biodiversity of the Sundarbans. In 1996 three wildlife sanctuaries in the Sundarbans and three dolphin sanctuaries were established in 2012 and in 2014, Swatch of No Ground was declared as Marine Protected Area.
In the year 1992, Sundarban was recognized as the site of Ramsar 560th, because of its richness of biodiversity. UNESCO declared the Wildlife Sanctuary of 1,39,700 hectares of the Sundarbans as 798th World Heritage in 1997.
Other then all the tourist spots in Khulna division Sundarban has a old history. In the Mughal period (1203-1538) a local king took the lease of the Sundarbans. Those fundamental changes that have been made in historical legal changes include being recognized as the world’s first mangrove forest and under science-based supervision. The map of the Sundarbans area was prepared in 1757 after getting the rights from the Mughal Emperor Alamgir by the East India Company. The forest area is under organizational management since the establishment of forest department in India’s then Bengal province in 1860 AD.
At the beginning of the eighteenth century, the size of the Sundarbans was nearly twice the present. Human pressure on the forest gradually shrunk its area. In 1828 the British government acquired the title of Sundarbans. L. T. Hajiz conducted the first survey of Sundarbans in 1829. Sundarbans was named as reserve forest In 1878 and forest department was given the responsibilities of Sundarbans in 1879. The name of the first divisional forest officer of the Sundarbans is M. U. Green In 1884 he served as the Divisional Forest Officer of the Sundarbans. During the partition of India in 1947, 6,017 sq km of the Sundarbans fell into Bangladesh. Which is around 4.2% of Bangladesh’s area and about 44% of the entire forest area.
The legal rights of the first forest management department were established on Sundarbans in 1869. According to Forest Act (Section 8) of 1965, a large part of the Sundarbans was declared as reserved forest in 1875-76. Within the next year, the remaining part is also recognized for the reserve forest. This resulted in the control of forest department under the control of the remote civil administration. Later, in 1879, forest department was established as the administrative unit for forest management, with its headquarters in Khulna. For the Sundarbans, during the 1893-98 period, the first forest management plan was enacted.
In the year 1911, the Sundarbans were termed as tract am waste land, which was never surveyed and no time has come under the census. Then the secrecy of the Hooghly River
In the year 1911, the Sundarbans were termed as tract am waste land, which was never surveyed and no time has come under the census. Then the boundary of the Hooghly river is approximately 165 miles (266 km) across the estuary of the Meghna river. At the same time, it has set the inter boundary between these twenty-three Parganas, Khulna and Bakerganj districts. The total area of the reservoir, including the reservoir, is estimated at 6,526 square miles (16,902 km). Watery beautiful forests are full of tigers and other wild animals. As a result, attempts to survey could not be very successful. The name Sundarbans has been named probably by its name as Sundari (Heritiera fomes). The hardwoods found from this are used to make various items including boats, furniture. The Sundarbans are divided into rivers, canals, and inlet all over, some of which are used for the movement of both steamers and local boats, for communication between Calcutta and Brahmaputra Basin.
As one of the three largest mangrove forests in the whole world, the Sundarbans ecosystem located in the Ganges basin is just as complex as possible. The larger part of the Sundarbans (2 6%) of the two neighboring countries, Bangladesh and India, is located on the south-west side of Bangladesh. Bay of the South; The boundary between the Balaswar river and the area of higher density of cultivation in the north in the east. In the higher areas, other water bodies except the main branches of the river are bamboo and bundled with bumper and humid land. In fact, the size of the Sundarbans was about 16,700 sq km. (200 years ago). The current volume has decreased to about one-third of the past. Currently the total land area is 4,143 sq km. (With the volume of 42 km²) and the remaining water stream with rivers, inlet and canal, 1,874 sq km. Sundarbans rivers mix salt water and sweet water. Thus, the area between the sweet water of the river coming from the Ganges, the saltwater of the Bay of Bengal, is the area. It is located in Satkhira, Khulna, Bagerhat, Patuakhali, Bangladesh. The Sundarbans is located in the southwestern region of Bangladesh.
The Sundarbans has been formed by depositing silt separately from the overflow due to the interstellar flow along the Bay of Bengal for thousands of years. Its geographical structure is the delta, which has numerous waterfalls on the surface and ground water and mud pellets. In addition, the perennial grasslands, sandfire and islands above the average elevation of the sea level, which are covered in the net like the canals, underground mud walls, the original algae mud and stored sediments. The height of the Sundarbans from the sea level is 0.9 meters to 2.11 meters.
Biological components play an important role in the process of marine matter and animal diversity. The diverse variety of beaches, estuaries, permanent and transient wetlands, mud ponds, inlet, sand dunes, and clay stacks have been formed here. The mangrove plant world itself plays a role in the formation of new land. Again, in the process of transplantation of water in the interstellar plant world plays an important role. The presence of mangrove organisms creates zodiacal ecosystem in interstellar mud ponds. It holds the policy for the production of horizontal subcutters for seeds. Ananta sandalised organization and the evolutionary process are controlled by a large number of xerophytic and halophytic trees. Trail-leaf, grass and hogla stabilize the formation of sand and unorganized polystars.
Climate change effect
The formation of the Sundarbans among the best tourist spots in Khulna division along the coast is influenced by the multidisciplinary factors, including the flow of streams, the bustle and aggregate stream cycles and the long coastal streams of the sea coast. Various streams of ocean currents vary widely. They also vary due to cyclone.
Deterioration and accumulation through these, although still not able to accurately measure, it creates a dimensional difference in the nature of the changes. However, the mangrove forest itself plays a significant role in its stability. During the seasonal rainy season, the entire Bengal Delta is submerged in water, most of which are submerged in almost half the year. The underlying sediments of the basin are primarily due to seasonal rainfall during the monsoon season and events like cyclone. In the coming years, the biggest problems faced by the people in the Ganges Basin are the increase in sea level rise.
Due to the change of freshness in highland areas, freshwater expanses of many of the Indian mangrove wetlands have significantly reduced since the end of the 19th century. At the same time, due to neo-tectonic motion, the Bengal Basin has also become a little sloping in the east, which has resulted in the greater part of fresh water being part of Bangladesh’s Sundarbans. As a result, Bangladesh’s share of salinity in the Sundarbans is much less than the Indian part. According to a 1990 paper, “There is no evidence that the natural environment of the Himalayas or the” green house “raises the height of the sea, making Bangladesh’s flood situation alarmy. However, in 2007, in UNESCO’s report titled “Climate Change and World Heritage Lessons,” it has been said that due to other man-made reasons, 45 cm of sea level As the height increases, more than 75 percent of the Sundarbans can be destroyed due to man-made manifold (proposed interaction on climate change
Due to the change of freshness in highland areas, freshwater expanses of many of the Indian mangrove wetlands have significantly reduced since the end of the 19th century. At the same time, due to neo-tectonic motion, the Bengal Basin has also become a little sloping in the east, which has resulted in the greater part of fresh water being part of Bangladesh’s Sundarbans. As a result, Bangladesh’s share of salinity in the Sundarbans is much less than the Indian part. According to a 1990 paper, “There is no evidence that the natural environment of the Himalayas or the” green house “raises the height of the sea, making Bangladesh’s flood situation alarmy. However, in 2007, in UNESCO’s report titled “Climate Change and World Heritage Lessons,” it has been said that due to other man-made reasons, 45 cm of sea level In addition to the increase in height, more than 75 percent of the Sundarbans can be destroyed due to man-made manifold (within the 21st century, according to the proposed intergovernmental council discussion on climate change).
The National Environment Court is also concerned because the mangrove forests against the marine storms, which are standing along the Sundarbans as well as the south-south natural wall, are not enough to save them.
Continue reading – The Sundarbans – Part-2
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